Animal Research Is Important to Medicine
All animals are hominis: that is, they contain a paired nucleus containing a piece of genetic material which contains the complete genetic code. All animals have a nervous system, a digestive system, the ability to moving voluntarily, and other special sensory organs to sense and respond to stimuli from the environment. Animals have no genitalia or breasts; they have no testicles or genitals, and no external genitalia at all. Some amphibians have lost most of their soft tissue, while others retain much of their sensitive reproductive organs. Man has lost most of his sensitive organs, including the brain, chest, and lung.
All mammals belong to the animal kingdom. The classifications of mammals are: amphibians, unicellular organisms with an outline similar to fish; reptiles, including all vertebrates and all mollusks; mammals, including humans and all of the primates; metatheriopods, those with chirping calluses on their arms and legs; eutherians, those with an egg and spermatozoa; protists, those with hair and nails; insects, and arachnids. The classifications of plant kingdom are: plants, such as the plants of the world’s plants, and all varieties of plants, trees, shrubs, herbs, and fruits; fungi, including all fungi; metamorphoses, those animals that undergo metamorphosis; mollusks, those with a bony body and softening anatomy such as the slipper claws of the mollusk; aquatic animals, those with a skeleton with a great deal of internal body water; land animals, those with hooves and tusks. Descendants of animals are those who derive their birth from animals and not from birds, reptiles, or other forms of vertebrates. The classification of dinosaurs is incomplete because some have become extinct since they existed.
Agriculture employs animal sciences, including food production, management, and feeding; veterinary science, the study of animal diseases and their treatment; and nutrition, the process of making food available to people. All branches of animal sciences have developed into important parts of modern-day agricultural production. Livestock production is the breeding of animals for the purpose of supplying meat, milk, and eggs to the human market. Aquaculture involves large-scale fishing and re-farming of water animals. Animal feeds are processed into animal feed used in animal feed production and animal medicines.
Modern developments in the fields of medicine and healthcare have made possible the production of animal products for medical purposes. Physicians use animal-derived products to help cure humans and to prevent and treat disease in humans. Veterinarians, or animal scientists study animal products to learn about the nature and function of the animals and the diseases they might suffer from. Animal breeders and veterinarians also study animal diseases and their treatments to develop new ways of dealing with these problems. Animal scientists work together with pharmacists and other animal health professionals to conduct clinical trials to test drugs on animals.
The tissue culture techniques that have been developed for multicellular organisms such as animals can be applied to the study of animal body functions. These include studying the development and function of the different organs of the body; studying the functions of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems; studying the anatomy, physiology, and blood chemistry of the animals; studying cell metabolism; studying the effects of dietary supplementation; and studying the effects of drug toxicity. All aspects of animal physiology and biochemistry are being studied in a wide range of the animal body. The results of these studies form the basis of new treatments, drugs, and therapies.
One field of animal research that has become more important over time is marine conservation. Several types of animals play an important role in marine ecosystems, preventing extinction of the aquatic organisms that they habitat. A number of animals have adapted to living in aquatic habitats, e.g., whales, dolphins, sea turtles, and various species of birds. In addition, endangered species of animals are protected by the government in many countries.