Many of the world’s most popular sports have rules. They are governed by rules, and the performance of an athlete is rated according to those rules. The performance is evaluated by a recognised organisational structure that determines the rules, and the outcome is meaningful. The rules and the overall organisation of the activity are generally standardized and give the sport a sense of structure and formality. Here are some common rules for sports:
A mutualist view of sports emphasizes that participation in sports is for the benefit of all players. It emphasizes that sports are cooperative, and competition pushes participants to improve their skills. The mutualist view draws on the ideas of Pierre de Coubertin and Grantland Rice, who both stated that sports are not about winning, but about the game itself. Other key principles of sport are that there is no predetermined outcome and that every player has equal opportunity to win. Rules are in place to ensure fair play, but sometimes participants may break them in order to obtain an advantage.
The philosophy of sport reflects the rapid development of neuroscience and computational science. There has been an exponential increase in publications exploring the mind-body relationship and the aesthetics of sport. Meanwhile, the aesthetics of sport has grown as a distinct field of study over the last decade, focusing on the relevant aesthetic qualities. However, there are still critics. Some argue that sport is not an art. Others maintain that it is simply a sport. They argue that there is no such thing as a pure aesthetic.